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    《全面建成小康社會:中國人權事業發展的光輝篇章》白皮書(1)(中英對照)

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    Moderate Prosperity in All Respects: Another Milestone Achieved in China's Human Rights

    全面建成小康社會:中國人權事業發展的光輝篇章

    The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China

    中華人民共和國國務院新聞辦公室

    August 2021

    2021年8月

    Contents

    目錄

    Foreword

    前言

    I. Achieving Moderate Prosperity and Advancing Human Rights

    一、全面建成小康社會開辟人權事業新境界

    II. Ending Extreme Poverty and Securing the Right to an Adequate Standard of Living

    二、消除絕對貧困實現基本生活水準權

    III. Boosting Human Rights with Development and Securing Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

    三、以發展促人權增進經濟社會文化權利

    IV. Protecting Civil and Political Rights with Law and Governance

    四、實行良法善治維護公民權利政治權利

    V. Promoting Social Equity and Protecting the Rights of Special Groups

    五、促進社會公平保障特定群體權益

    Conclusion

    結束語

    Foreword

    前言

    Human rights are an achievement of humanity and a symbol of progress. Respect for and protection of human rights is a basic principle of modern civilization, and the unwavering goal of the Chinese Communists. The Communist Party of China (CPC) seeks happiness for the people. Its 100-year history records its efforts in fighting for, respecting, protecting, and developing human rights. Owing to its efforts, human rights in China have greatly improved, adding diversity to human civilization.

    人權是人類文明進步的成果和標志,尊重和保障人權是現代文明的基本精神,也是中國共產黨人的不懈追求。中國共產黨是為人民謀幸福的政黨。中國共產黨的100年,是爭取人權、尊重人權、保障人權、發展人權的100年,極大提高了中國人權文明水平,豐富發展了人類文明多樣性。

    Building China into a moderately prosperous society in all respects is a major strategy designed by the Party and the government to improve the wellbeing of the people, better protect human rights, and achieve modernization of the country. On July 1, 2021, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and president of China, solemnly declared in Beijing on behalf of the Party and the people that we had realized the first centenary goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This means we have brought about a historic resolution to the problem of extreme poverty in China, and we are now marching with confidence towards the goal of building China into a great modern socialist country in all respects. It is an exciting moment for human rights in China, a moment that will go down in history, and a moment from which we will forge ahead into the future.

    全面建成小康社會是中國共產黨和中國政府為增進人民福祉、提高全體人民人權保障水平、實現國家現代化而實施的一項重大國家發展戰略。2021年7月1日,中共中央總書記、國家主席習近平在北京代表黨和人民莊嚴宣告,“我們實現了第一個百年奮斗目標,在中華大地上全面建成了小康社會,歷史性地解決了絕對貧困問題,正在意氣風發向著全面建成社會主義現代化強國的第二個百年奮斗目標邁進”。這是中國人權進程中一個激動人心的時刻、一個載入史冊的時刻、一個繼往開來的時刻。

    The realization of all-round moderate prosperity shows that the CPC has stayed true to its original aspiration and founding mission. Under the CPC leadership, the Chinese people worked hard in the final stage towards this goal, and finally completed the historic transformation from poverty to secure access to food and clothing, to a decent life, and finally to moderate prosperity.

    全面建成小康社會是中國共產黨不忘初心、牢記使命的真實寫照。在中國共產黨的領導下,中國人民奮力決勝全面小康,最終實現了從貧困到溫飽到總體小康直到全面小康的歷史跨越。

    Moderate prosperity in China is evident in all respects: a buoyant economy, political democracy, a flourishing culture, social equity, and healthy ecosystems; balanced development between urban and rural areas to the benefit of all the people; and high respect for and comprehensive protection of human rights. China's realization of moderate prosperity serves as a solid foundation for human rights, and takes a deeper and broader perspective on this cause. It represents comprehensive progress in ensuring universal human rights in China, and a new contribution to the world's human rights cause.

    全面小康是經濟富裕、政治民主、文化繁榮、社會公平、生態良好的小康,是城鄉區域均衡發展、惠及全體人民的小康,是切實尊重和全面保障人權的小康。中國全面建成小康社會,夯實了人權基礎,豐富了人權內涵,拓寬了人權視野,意味著人權的全面發展和全民共享,譜寫了中國人權事業的新篇章,創造了人類尊重和保障人權的奇跡。

    I. Achieving Moderate Prosperity and Advancing Human Rights

    一、全面建成小康社會開辟人權事業新境界

    Xiaokang, an ancient term in China, refers to a status of moderate prosperity whereby people are neither rich nor poor but free from want and toil. It has been the people's wish since ancient times to live a life of peace, stability and happiness. In the early period of reform and opening up, based on its own national conditions, China articulated the goal of building a moderately prosperous society, which demonstrated its concern for improving the people's wellbeing, and its commitment to protecting and promoting human rights. The realization of all-round moderate prosperity ushers in a new era for the protection of human rights in all respects.

    在中國,“小康”是一個古老的詞匯,指免于勞苦和匱乏,生活水平處于溫飽與富裕之間的一種較為殷實幸福的狀態。享有安寧、祥和與幸福的生活是人們自古以來的美好愿景。改革開放之初,中國根據自身具體國情提出建設小康社會的目標,蘊含著關注和增進民生福祉、保障和促進人權的豐富內涵。全面建成小康社會開辟了全面保障人權的新時代。

    1. The Journey to Moderate Prosperity

    1.全面建成小康社會的光輝歷程

    Building a moderately prosperous society has been a grand strategy since the 1980s, designed to realize national prosperity and rejuvenation, and ensure the people's wellbeing in China under the leadership of the CPC. Based on its analysis and judgment of China's realities at that time, the CPC decided to focus on economic development to drive social progress on all fronts. Since then, the CPC and the Chinese government have made it a key goal to build a moderately prosperous society by stages.

    建設小康社會是20世紀80年代以來,中國共產黨領導中國實現國家富強、民族復興、人民幸福的宏偉戰略?;趯χ袊l展實際的分析和判斷,中國共產黨提出堅持以經濟建設為中心,通過經濟發展帶動整個社會進步。從那時起,“小康”“全面建設小康社會”“全面建成小康社會”成為中國共產黨和中國政府的階段性奮斗目標。

    In December 1979, Deng Xiaoping presented the vision of building a xiaokang society. The reference to xiaokang grounded the goal of China's modernization firmly in traditional Chinese culture. The report to the 12th CPC National Congress in 1982 defined the goal to quadruple the annual gross output value of industry and agriculture and secure the people's basic needs in two decades from 1981 to the end of the 20th century. The report to the 14th CPC National Congress in 1992 stated that the country had ensured the basic needs of 1.1 billion Chinese people and was moving on towards xiaokang.

    1979年12月,鄧小平提出建設“小康之家”的設想,創造性地借用“小康”這個富有中國傳統文化特色的概念來表述“中國式的現代化”的重要內容與目標。1982年中共十二大報告明確,從1981年到20世紀末的二十年,力爭使全國工農業的年總產值翻兩番,解決人民的溫飽問題。1992年中共十四大報告指出,11億人民的溫飽問題已經基本解決,正在向小康邁進。

    The report to the 16th CPC National Congress in 2002 declared that on the whole the people had made a historic leap from having only adequate food and clothing to leading a life of moderate prosperity, and set forth the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects: In the first two decades of the 21st century, China would build a society of moderate prosperity of a higher standard in an all-round way to the benefit of over one billion people; China would further develop the economy, improve democracy, advance science and education, promote cultural prosperity, foster social harmony, and upgrade the quality of life for the people.

    2002年中共十六大報告宣告,“人民生活總體上實現了由溫飽到小康的歷史性跨越”,并進一步提出“全面建設小康社會”的目標:在本世紀頭二十年,集中力量,全面建設惠及十幾億人口的更高水平的小康社會,使經濟更加發展、民主更加健全、科教更加進步、文化更加繁榮、社會更加和諧、人民生活更加殷實。

    The report to the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 laid out the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects by 2020. According to this report, China's economy would maintain sustained and sound development, people's democracy would be expanded, and human rights would be fully respected and protected. The country's cultural soft power would be improved significantly. Living standards would be raised. Major progress would be made in building a resource-conserving and environmentally friendly society.

    2012年中共十八大報告進一步提出“確保到2020年實現全面建成小康社會宏偉目標”,實現經濟持續健康發展,人民民主不斷擴大,人權得到切實尊重和保障,文化軟實力顯著增強,人民生活水平全面提高,資源節約型、環境友好型社會建設取得重大進展。

    The report to the 19th CPC National Congress in 2017 pointed out that to succeed in building a moderately prosperous society in all respects, China must strive against all difficulties to promote coordinated progress in the economic, political, cultural, social and eco-environmental fields in light of the current principal challenge facing the country, so that the moderately prosperous society it builds earns the people's approval and stands the test of time.

    2017年中共十九大報告提出決勝全面建成小康社會,要求緊扣中國社會主要矛盾變化,統籌推進經濟建設、政治建設、文化建設、社會建設、生態文明建設,攻堅克難,使全面建成小康社會得到人民認可、經得起歷史檢驗。

    On July 1, 2021, Xi Jinping, general secretary of the CPC Central Committee and president of China, declared on behalf of the Party and the people that China had realized the goal of building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.

    2021年7月1日,中共中央總書記、國家主席習近平在北京代表黨和人民莊嚴宣告,在中華大地上全面建成了小康社會。

    This is a critical step towards the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, fulfilling the historic commitment of the CPC and the Chinese government to the people.

    小康社會的全面建成,標志著中華民族偉大復興中國夢邁出關鍵一步,實現了中國共產黨和中國政府向人民、向歷史作出的莊嚴承諾。

    和主體地位認識不斷提升的過程,促進了尊重和保障人權文化氛圍的形成。

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